EU Residency and the Schengen Area
The free movement of persons is a fundamental right guaranteed by the EU to its citizens and holders of ID cards issued to citizens and residents. It entitles EU citizens and residents to travel, trade and access to any EU country without special formalities. Schengen cooperation enhances this freedom by enabling citizens to cross internal borders without being subjected to border checks. The border-free Schengen Area guarantees free movement to more than 400 million EU citizens, as well as to many non-EU nationals, businessmen, tourists and other persons legally present on EU territory.
Current and periodic border checks are mainly a result of combatting the spread of the Covid virus and only serve as a temporary measure.
Today, the Schengen Area encompasses most EU States, except for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland and Romania. However, Bulgaria and Romania are currently in the process of joining the Schengen Area. Certain non-EU states; Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein have since joined the Schengen Area.